DRAINAGE PATTERN OF INDIA -PART 1

Himalayan drainage system of india

  • area Drained by a single river system is called drainage basin or river basin
  • HIMALAYAN RIVERS:

LARGE BASINS
INTENSIVE EROSIONAL ACTIVITY
MEANDERING TENDENCY
PERENNIAL FLOW PATTERN derived from rainfall and snowmelt

  • PENINSULAR RIVERS:
    Little erosional activity
    seasonal flow pattern as their flow is mainly dependent upon rainfall
    they have straight ang generally linear courses

HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN RIVERS

complex compromises of 3 systems=
1.indus system
2.ganga system
3.brahamaputra system

  • INDUS RIVER SYSTEM:

    Rises from a glacier near BUKHAR CHAN IN TIBET near Mansarovar lake and enter India in Jammu and Kashmir.

  • considered one of the largest rivers of the world
  • flow south-westwards across PAKISTAN to reach the ARABIAN SEA east of Karachhi
  • it has 5 tributaries:
1.JHELUM:
  • rises from a spring at VERINAG [VALLEY OF KASHMIR]
  • Sanskrit name= Vitasta and veth in kashmir
  • it joins the CHENAB near JHANG in Pakistan.
2.CHENAB:
  • Formed by the confluence of CHANDRA and BHAGA in himachal ,so it i called CHANDRABHAGA IN H.P
  • Runs parallel to PIR PANJAL.
  • MAIN TRIBUTARY=TAVI
  • SANKRI NAME-ASKINI
3.RAVI:
  • SANSKRIT NAME-IRAVATI
  • rises from ROHTANG PASS in kullu hills of H.P and flows
  • between PIR PANJAL and DHALADHAR RANGES.
  • IT meets chenab and enter PANCHNAD.
  • 4.BEAS:
  • SANSKRIT-VIPASHA
  • RISES from ROHTANG PASS[kullu valley]
  • meets SATLUJ near HARIKE.
5.SUTLUJ:
  • SANSKRIT NAME-SHATADRU
  • originates from RAAKAS LAKE in TIBET.
  • IT FEEDS the CANAL SYSTEM OF BHAKRA NANGAL
  • PROJECT ,HARIKE and SARHIND.

GANGA SYSTEM:

  • RISES in the UTRAKHAND Himalayas
  • Acquires its name after it HEADSTREAMS : ALAKNANDA AND BHAGIRATHI united in DEVAPRAYAG.
  • GANGA IN Bangladesh is called PADMA.
  • below Chandipur falling into bay of Bengal Padma receive Brahamputra
TRIBUTARIES of GANGA:
1.YAMUNA:
  • MOST IMPORTANT AND LONGEST TRIBUTARY
  • rIses from the YAMUNOTRI glacier on the BAANDERPUCH RANGE.
  • IT JOins ganga in PRAYAG[sangam}
  • important city on its bank=AGRA
  • ITS TRIBUTARIES=Chambal and Betwa
  • drainage areas: uttrakhand,delhi,U.P
2.SHARDA OR SARYU:
  • KNOWN BY VARIOUS NAMES –
    IN himalayas=kali
    in Piliphit and kheri district.=sharda
    before joining right bank og ghaghra=chauka
  • rises in the milan glacier in the nepal Himalayas.
  • runs along INDO-NEPAL boundary and leaves Himalayas at Baramde On.
3.GOMTI:

ONLY tributary which rises in the plains.

meets ganga down varanasi.

4.GHAGHRA:
  • RISES FROM glaciers glacier of MAP Chachu NGO.
  • KALI RIVER joins ganga near CHAPRA.
6.GANDAK:
  • RISES NEAR sino -nepal boundary
  • drains in central part of nepal
    called narayani in nepal.
  • it compromise of two streams :
    kali gandak
    trishul ganga
7.KOSI:
  • SOURCE-NORTH OF MOUNT EVEREST.{TIBET] WHERE ITS MAIN STREAM ARUN rises
  • it drains eastern nepal
  • enter sahara district of bihar
  • joins GANGA AT Keragola
8.DAMODAR:
  • Occupies the eastern margins of Chhoa Nagpur plateau.
  • BARKAR IS MAIN TRIBUTARY
    it is called SORROW OF THE BENGAL because t causes mass destruction of floods.
9.MAHANANDA:
  • RISING in the DARJILING HILLS
  • joins ganga in the west bengal
10.SON:
  • LARGE SOUTH bank tributary of ganga
  • rises from AMARKANTANK plateau

THE BRAHAMAPUTRA RIVER SYSTEM:

  • Origin in the CHEMAYUNGDUNG glacier of te KAILASH range near MANASROVAR lake.
  • in southern tibet it is called TSANGPO {purifier]
    brahamputra in india
    jamuna in bangladesh
  • BRAHAMAPUTRA is the only river with a male name
  • it is also called RED RIVER of india because during floods it water turns into reddish colur due to red soil of Assam
  • its major tributaries are:
    tista, Subansiri ,barali,manas,dhansiri and dihing.

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