Components of Ecosystem
Inorganic and non-living parts.
Soil, water, air, and light
Latitudes and Altitude
|Lining organisms comprising plants, animals, and microbes.
Eco-tone is a zone of junction between two or more diverse ecosystems.
Example- Mangrove Forests represent an eco-tone between marine and terrestrial ecosystems.
Examples- grasslands, estuary and river banks.
A niche is the unique functional role or place of a species in an ecosystem. It is a description of all the
biological, physical and chemical factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy and reproduce.
It is that part of the earth where life exists.
Terrestrial part of the biosphere is divisible into regions called biomes, which are characterized by
climate, vegetation and animal life and general soil type.
Northern and Southernmost region
of the world adjoining the ice-bound poles.
Vegetation types are mostly Lichen and mosses.
Animals- Reindeer, Arctic fox, Polar Bear etc.
Northern Europe Asia and North
America, moderate Temperature than tundra. Also
known as Boreal Forest.
(C) Temperate Deciduous Forest
Extends over Central and Southern Europe, Eastern North America, Western China, Japan, New zealand. Most
productive agricultural area of the world. Moderate
temperature, abundant rainfall.
(d) Tropical Rain Forest
Equatorial region, High Temperature and rainfall. 7% of the earth surface, 40% of the
world’s plant and animal species.
Tropical region; Savannah is most extensive in Africa. Grasses with scattered trees and fire
resisting thorny shrubs.
North America, Ukraine etc, Temperature conditions with low rainfall. Grasses dominate the
continental interiors with very low, sporadic rainfall with low humidity. Cactus, Sagebrush, Fauna
Reptiles, small mammals.
(a) Freshwater Ecosystem-
Lotic (Freshwater)- Streams, Springs, Rivulets, Creeks, Brooks, and Rivers.
Lentic(Still or Stagnant)- Pools, Ponds, Swamps, Lakes.
(b) Marine Ecosystem
some depth of the Ocean.
Coastal and bays, River mouths, tidal marshes.
Coral and Mangroves also.