Components of Ecosystem -Biotic and Abiotic

Components of Ecosystem


Abiotic Components

 Biotic Components

Inorganic and non-living parts. 

Soil, water, air, and light
energy etc. Physical Processes- including volcanoes,
earthquakes, floods, forest fires, climates, and weather

(a) Energy
(b) Rainfall
(c) Temperature
(d) Atmosphere
(e) Materials- Water, Carbon, Carbon Dioxide,
Sulphur , nitrate, phosphate etc.


Latitudes and Altitude

Lining organisms comprising plants, animals, and microbes.

(a) Primary Producers 

Autotrophs(Self Nourishing).
Green Plants.
In terrestrial ecosystem producers are basically
herbaceous and woody plants.
In aquatic ecosystem producers are various species of
microscopic algae.

(b) Consumers-


Heterotrophs :They are incapable of producing their own food. They
depend on organic food derived from plants, animals or both.
❏ Primary Consumer- Herbivores.
Consumers which feed mainly on plants. E.g- cow,
❏ Secondary Consumers- Feed on primary
consumers. Wolf.
❏ Tertiary Consumers- Carnivores which feed on
secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers.
Omnivores are organisms which consume both plants and
animals eg. Man, Monkey.

(c) Decomposers ,  Osmotrophs , Saprotrophs

Bacteria and Fungi obtain energy and nutrients by
decomposing dead organic substances of plants and animals.
These nutrients are reused by the producers and recycled.
Example- Earthworm, nematodes.


Eco-tone is a zone of junction between two or more diverse ecosystems.
Example- Mangrove Forests represent an eco-tone between marine and terrestrial ecosystems.
Examples- grasslands, estuary and river banks.


A niche is the unique functional role or place of a species in an ecosystem. It is a description of all the
biological, physical and chemical factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy and reproduce.



It is that part of the earth where life exists.


Terrestrial part of the biosphere is divisible into regions called biomes, which are characterized by
climate, vegetation and animal life and general soil type.

(a) Tundra

Northern and Southernmost region
of the world adjoining the ice-bound poles.
Vegetation types are mostly Lichen and mosses.
Animals- Reindeer, Arctic fox, Polar Bear etc.

(b) Taiga

Northern Europe Asia and North
America, moderate Temperature than tundra. Also
known as Boreal Forest.

(C) Temperate Deciduous Forest

Extends over Central and Southern Europe, Eastern North America, Western China, Japan, New zealand. Most
productive agricultural area of the world. Moderate
temperature, abundant rainfall.

(d) Tropical Rain Forest

Equatorial region, High Temperature and rainfall. 7% of the earth surface, 40% of the
world’s plant and animal species.

(e) Savannah-

Tropical region; Savannah is most extensive in Africa. Grasses with scattered trees and fire
resisting thorny shrubs.

(f) Grassland


North America, Ukraine etc, Temperature conditions with low rainfall. Grasses dominate the

(g) Desert

continental interiors with very low, sporadic rainfall with low humidity. Cactus, Sagebrush, Fauna

Reptiles, small mammals.

Aquatic Ecosystems-

(a) Freshwater Ecosystem-

Lotic (Freshwater)- Streams, Springs, Rivulets, Creeks, Brooks, and Rivers.
Lentic(Still or Stagnant)- Pools, Ponds, Swamps, Lakes.

(b) Marine Ecosystem

some depth of the Ocean.

(c) Estuaries

Coastal and bays, River mouths, tidal marshes.
Coral and Mangroves also.

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