Insurgency in the Assam areas

Insurgency in the North East [ASSAM]


  • Naga and Mizo insurgencies (earliest)
    Even in the present Assam, there are anumber of extremist outfits led by the United Liberation
    Front of Assam (ULFA).

United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA)

 ULFA was by founded by some youths. (Arabinda Rajkhowa) on 7 April 1979 in Sivasagar.
 Aim: “liberating” Assam from India
 It became active from the 1980s and till the late 1990s, enjoyed considerable public support (‘insurgency is causing secessions’)
non-violent agitation for ‘expulsion of foreigners’ as having achieved very little ‘success’ strong links with the Assam Gana Parishad (AGP)
 influenced many members of the AGP as well as the police force at Assam.
 the Indian government banned ULFA, president rule (1990)

Violent activities:
 target state government buildings, security personnel, rail infrastructure, and politicians who opposed their ideologies (“Oikya, Biplab, Mukti” (“Unity, Revolution, Freedom“)).
 its own military wing: Sanjukta Mukti Fouj (SMF) (1996)
 set up training camps: Bhutan and Bangladesh

 large scale criminalisation of ULFA cadres – rapid loss of public support (urban middle classes)
 known links with the ‘agencies’ of certain foreign countries
 repeated volte-face by ULFA during several abortive negotiations with the Government
 crackdown by the Bhutanese Army.


•Agitations against ‘influx of foreigners’,
•Perceived inability of the government to deport them;
•tensions between religious institutions and linguistic groups
•Escalating conflicts involving tribal communities who seek local autonomy etc.
Wide variety of ethnic conflicts prevail in the state

 Grievance against the perceived influx of ‘foreigners’ (different language and culture) from across the border (i.E. Bangladesh).
 ‘Foreigners’ agitation’ of 1979-85
 Landless from the neighbouring overpopulated districts of east bengal started arriving.
 Communal riots in east pakistan (1950s and 1960s) – further waves of migration.
 Fear of being culturally and politically ‘swamped –resentment built up – escalated one the most prolonged and vigorous agitations.

Assam accord

Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) : India government and the leaders of the Assam Movement on 15 August 1985 in New Delhi

• Identification and deportation of illegal immigrants (all assam students’ union (AASU) in 1979)
 Communities mainly like the Bodos ,Dimas and Karbis wanted separate States.
 They worked for this demand by mobilising public opinion and popular movement as well as through insurgency.
 same area was claimed by more than one community

The state has three autonomous councils set up under 6th schedule of the Constitution:

•1 Bodoland -Autonomous Territorial Council,
•2. Karbi Anglong-Autonomous Council.
•3 Dima Hasao-Autonomous Council.


Who are Bodos?

  • Live in the northern most region of assam. Bodos said to be the earliest inhabitants in the Brahmaputra valley region. It is the huge tribal community out of 34 other tribal communities of assam.


1.Status of scheduled tribes (ST)

2.Tribal belts and blocks (forest’s) – to protect farming and grazing lands mainly from rich landlord and illegal immigrants.


  • Dysfunctional TBB
  • Influx of Refugees: 28% Bodo, 20% Muslims, and rest includes, Assamese, Bengali Hindus and non Bodo tribes).
  • Corruption: Misuse of financial packages
  • Lack of political participation


 In 1967, PTCA demanded a Union Territory status for an area to be carved out of Assam is called Udyanchal
 late 1980’s with the birth of All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU) and Bodo political parties jointly
demanding a separate state, called Bodoland.
 The National Democratic Front of Bodoland [NDFB) is a separatist group that wants a
sovereign Bodoland


Formally started on 02 march on 15 August 1985. Bodo Student union made a political organisation Bodo Peoples Action Committee (APAC) and make plans for division of Assam 50:50.


Bodo Peace Accord-1993

• Led to the creation of Bodo Autonomous Council (BAC).
• The accord soon collapsed : split between the ABSU and the other political parties; outcome:
• Widespread violence and displacement of over 70,000 people.
• Agitations and large scale riots in 1994, 1996, and may 2014 .

• Insecurity


  • Bodo Territorial Council (BTC) (6th Schedule) Bodo Territorial AreasDistricts (BTAD) (6th
    Schedule) BTAD comprises of 35% of the Assam (Kokrajhar, Chirang, Baska, and Udalguri.)
    • To safeguard the interests of bodo people Why BTAD? • Ensure their appropriate representation

Unresolved Issues And Continuation Of Violence

  • The non-bodos and muslims feel that bodos, that comprise only 25 % of the total population, should not be given the authority to rule over and control 3/4th of the population in the BTAD.

Bodoland  peace accord 2020

  • A tripartite accord signed on 27 jan 2020
  • The union home minister amit shah and the all bodo students union (ABSU) and all the national democratic front of bodoland (NDFB)

 BTAD will be renamed as the bodoland territorial region (BTR)
 The BTC membership will be increased to 60 and it will have more legislative, executive and financial powers
 Bodo language will now be an associate official language with script of devanagri in assam.
1500 crore rupees is the special development package over 3 years
 In return, the militant factions will terminate all
insurgency related activities
 The bodos in the hills will be given the scheduled hill tribe status


  • The stakeholders have given up their demand for a separate statehood and UT and accepted the idea of widerautonomy within the State of Assam
  • The most potent factions of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland that had stayed away from earlier agreements are now on Board.

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