SECURITY FORCES AND THEIR MANDATE
it is Semi-militarized force
Also a Organizational structure, training, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military (army),but not formally part of a country’s armed forces
it safeguard the internal security of the country by securing the Indian borders.
- Other roles
ensuring fair and peaceful conduct of elections,
protection against terrorists & Maoists,
providing help in the midst of a natural calamity.
All Indian paramilitary forces function under the administrative control of MINISTEY OF HOME AFFAIRS (on the other hand, the Indian Army, Navy & Air Force come under the MoD) and have different components and roles.
TYPES OF PARAMILITARY FORCES
The term “Paramilitary force” in India has not been defined in any act. There are seven forces considered as paramilitary forces. In March 2011 they have been reclassified as Central Armed Police Forces.
Border Security Force (BSF)
Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
Assam Rifles (AR) (CPMF)
Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
National Security Guard (NSG)
TYPES OF CAPF BASED ON FUNCTION
Border Guarding Forces: AR, BSF, ITBP and SSB.
CRPF is deployed to assist the Civil Administration under the State Governments / UT Administrations
Specialized wings of the CRPF : Rapid Action Force (RAF) and Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA)
CISF provides security and protection to vital installations of national / strategic importance
National Security Guard (NSG) is a specialized strike Force trained in the counter terrorism and anti-hijacking operations.
Oldest Para Military Force in the country deployed in the North East in for guarding the Indo-Myanmar Border and
Counter Insurgency role and, spread in around 1642 km.
Headquarters : Shillong (Meghalaya).
46 Battalions = strength of 65,143 personnel.
Administrative control of the MHA but operates under the Army.
lieutenant general of the army ( by an officer rank) is commander of the force.
Background: In 1835, existed as a militia called the ‘Cachar’ Levy to primarily protect British tea estates and their settlements. In 1917, the name of the Force was changed to ‘Assam Rifles’.
Functions of Assam riffles
Conduct counter-terrorism operations in the North-East.
During peace and ‘proxy war’, ensure the security of the Indo-China and Indo-Myanmar borders.
During the war, act as an intervening force till the time situation goes beyond its control and internal security comes under the control of the army.
Flood Relief Operations
Civic Action Programme (CAP): Upliftment of the people of the NE through numerous CAPs including construction of Community Halls, Provision of Water Supply Schemes,
upliftment of Rural Schools, Free Medical Camps, Awareness Programmes, Sports Activities for the youth etc.
BORDER SECURITY FORCE
Also known as “INDIA’S FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE“
It is under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs.
It is headed by an IPS with the rank of Director General.
192 Battalions + 03 NDRF Battalions = strength 2,63,905 personnel.
Headquarter : New Delhi.
Background: established on December 1, 1965. earlier there was State Armed Police Battalion (Indo-Pak border). Later Government of India felt the need for a specialized centrally controlled Border Security Force.
Functions of border security force [BSF]
it guarante Peace time to border areas.
Guard the International borders, along with the army, shared with Pakistan (including LoC) and Bangladesh.
Prevent trans-border crimes
Deployed for counter insurgency and internal security duties
Assist the state administration in maintaining Law and Order and conduct of peaceful election
during the time of the natural Calamities
Holding ground till the situation is within the capability of BSF to deal with
Protection of vital installations
Performing special tasks connected with intelligence including raids
INDO-TIBETAN BORDER POLICE FORCE (ITBP)
A specialized mountain paramilitary force (trained mountaineers and skiers)
they are the protector or guard of Indo china border (3488 km approximately)
It consist of 62 battalions = strength of 89,437 personnel.
It operates under the command of IPS officer with the rank of DG.
Headquarter: New Delhi
Background: Raised in the wake of Chinese aggression in 1962. (Guerrilla cum-intelligence cum-fighting Force)
Functions of Indo -Tibetan border police force [ITBP]
Check illegal immigration, trans-border smuggling and crimes.
they face and control insurgency areas and their internal security (they are deployed in chhattisgarh (8 Battalions) to control naxalism.
Rescue and relief operations during natural disaster.
Provide security, communication and medical cover to the pilgrims (Annual Kailash Mansarovar Yatra)
Civic Action Programme (CAP)
Overseas Responsibilities: Security to Embassy of India (EOI), Kabul and other Consulates in Afghanistan.
SASHASTRA SEEMA BAL (SSB)
Guarding the Indo-Nepal Border covering a stretch of 1751 km
and Indo-Bhutan borders covering 699 km.
they are under the administration of Ministry of Home affairs
It is under the command of an IPS officer with the rank of Director General (DG).
73 battalions: posted strength of 79441 personnel
Headquarter: New Delhi
Background: Chinese conflict in 1962, the Special Service Bureau was formed in March 1963.
In 2003 it is renamed as ” Sashastra Seema Bal ” from border guarding force .
Function of Sashastra Seem Bal [SSB]
they protect and guard Indo -Nepal and Indo -Bhutan borders
they prevent all illegal activities around the borders like smuggling or other crimes.
Lead Intelligence Agency for the area.
due to area responsibility they also do civic action programmes.
Duties related to Internal Security and Counter Insurgency
Operations. It has deployed its personnel in insurgency affected States of Jammu & Kashmir and LWE (Left Wing Extremism) affected areas of Chhattisgarh ,Jharkhand and Bihar.
CENTRAL RESERVE POLICE FORCE(CRPF)
Largest CAPF of lndia for internal security.
It is under the command of IPS(Director General).
it has 246 Battalions = strength of 3,24,824 personnel
246 Battalion, (including 208 executive Battalion , 6 mahila battalions, 15 RAF battalions, 10 CoBRA battalions, 5 Signal battalions and 1 Special Duty Group & 01 Parliament Duty Group), 43 Group Centre and allied institutions and training centers
Background: Initially raised as the ‘Crown Representative Police’ in 1939 at Nemuch, MP. After Independence, the force was renamed as CRPF
Functions of Central Armed Police Forces [CAPF]
maintain Law and order
Counter insurgency, anti-militancy, anti-naxal operations.
Ensuring security arrangements in the Parliamentary elections & State Assembly Election.
they also act guards of VIPs ( Chief Ministers, governors, prime minister office)
protect vital central government installations
Fighting aggression during War time with the Army.
Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities
- SPECIAL ROLE
Rapid Action Force (RAF):
raised in 1992 to deal with communal riots and riot like situations (zero response force)
working under the supervision of an Inspector General.
Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (CoBRA)
Raised in 2008 to fight Maoists and insurgents in Left Wing Extremism affected areas of Chhattisgarh, Bihar,
Orissa, Jharkhand, MP, MH, WB, Andhra Pradesh as well as Meghalaya and Assam
Mahila Battalions also included in this
CRPF is the only Para Military Force in the Country which has 06 Mahila Battalions.
The first Mahila Battalion in CRPF was created in 1986 with headquarter in Delhi.
ln addition each RAF battalion has a Mahila (Ladies) component consisting of 106 personnel.
CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY FORCE(CISF)
Multi-skilled security force, mandated to provide security to major critical infrastructure installations of the country in diverse areas.
Strength of 1,41,421 Personnal
It is under the command of IPS with rank DG.
it was made from Central industrial security force Act ,1968 and formed or raised in 1969
Functions of Central Industrial Security Force [CISF]
Security cover to 345 units including 61 domestic and international airports and Industrial Undertakings fire protection works.
they also provide security to nuclear power plants , mines, oil fields, space installations, airports, seaports ,refineries etc
The VIP Security wing of CISF called the Special Security Group (SSG), provides protection to the VIPs.
It is one of the largest Fire Protection Service providers in the country.
NATIONAL SECURITY GUARD (NSG)
NSG is Federal Contingency Force to thwart “serious” acts of terrorism in all its manifestation.
Zero Error, Speed, surprise, stealth, precision and accuracy are its hall marks.
This Strike Force is a unique amalgam of personnel selected from different forces forming two complementary elements i.e.
- Special Action Group (SAG) comprising Army personnel;
- Special Ranger Groups (SRG), comprising personnel drawn from the CAPF / State Police Forces.
Background: The NSG formally came into being with the enactment of Union law in 1986.
Functions of National Security Guard [NSG]
The NSG Commandos are trained for high-risk tasks like counter-terrorism, counter-hijack and bomb disposal operations.
they also serve close protection of designated protectees.
Immediate Back Up Security Operations (IBUS) – NSG Task Forces (TFs) are deployed for IBUS operations as part of security arrangements during the events of national importance,, to thwart any strike of terror.
Render Safe Procedure (RSP) – NSG Bomb Disposal Teams carries out the Anti Sabotage Checks at important venues ,attended by VVIPs and places of importance where national & international summits are held.